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Subject: ACADEMY: Claude d'Ygé
From: Jean-Yves Artero
Date: 1 Apr 2005

Hi Gleb,

Perhaps you would like to know that besides his two main books:

- Anthologie de la poésie hermétique
- Nouvelle assemblée des philosophes chymiques,

Claude d'Ygé, as he is best known, or more completely, Claude
Lablatinière d'Ygé (1912-1964) wrote several articles in reviews,
mainly in Initiation et Science.
Please find here attached the cover of one of the issues of the latter, with a
picture of C. d'Ygé:

n° 63 - juillet 1965 - 20ème année
Revue de recherches des lois inconnues
en couverture : Claude d'Ygé DE LABLATINIERE

Friendly yours,


Subject: ACADEMY: Claude d'Ygé
From: Joël Tetard
Date: 1 Apr 2005

According to Mr. Eugène Canseliet in "Le Feu du Soleil" (written by
Robert Amadou from interviews with M. Canseliet and published in
1978, by Pauvert, Paris, ISBN2.7202.0088.3), Claude Lablatinière d'Ygé
was not an active Alchemist, i.e.working "by the fire". However,
M. Canseliet had an excellent opinion of his written work which remains
in "the best and the most healthy tradition" ("dans la meilleure et la plus
sainte tradition").

Mr. Canseliet wrote two forewords to Claude d'Ygé's "Anthology de la
poésie hermétique" (1947 and 1976 by Dervy Livres, Paris,
ISBN 2-85076-031-5) and "Nouvelle Assemblée des Philosophes
chymiques - Aperçus sur le Grand Oeuvre des Alchimistes"
(published in 1954 and1972 by Dervy Livres, Paris).

A French literary society called Les Amants de la Licorne (The
Lovers of the Unicorn) was said to be founded by Claude d'Ygé


but I have no information on this topic.

Best regards.

Joël Tetard "Pierre Stibia"

Subject: ACADEMY: Claude d'Ygé
From: Gleb Butuzov
Date: 3 Apr 2005

Dear Joël,

Thank you very much for the information.
I know this and a couple of other short articles on the web. Actually, the
editor is looking for something regarding his connections with the group of
Naglowski, and some more details on Les Amants de la Licorne if available.

Thanks again,

Gleb Butuzov.

Subject: ACADEMY: Filia Fientes
From: Eric Giegerich
Date: 3 Apr 2005

Dear Alchemy Academy,

Does anyone know of a tradition or text in which the words
"filia fientes" are paired, or recognize "ff" as a symbol representing
"filia fientes" (or anything else)? I have only found the terms together
in the Turba Philosophorum, but not paired.

Kind regards,

Eric Giegerich

Subject: ACADEMY: Filia Fientes
From: Adam McLean
Date: 4 Apr 2005

Does "filia fientes" make sense in Latin ?

Filia "daughter" probably does not make much sense if we
read "fientes" as manure or dung, following the French.
I cannot find a word form corresponding to "fientes" in the
Lewis and Short, Latin dictionary.

Perhaps "fientes" is incorrect and a misreading of the long "s" form
as an "f". Thus it could be "scientis". Then we have something
meaningful - "daughter of the science".

If we stick with reading "fientes" then "filia" should perhaps be
"fila", plural of "filum" - thread, which can mean "remnants".
Then we have something meaningful, fila fientes - "remnants of the manure"

Or am I missing something ?

Adam McLean

Subject: ACADEMY: Filia Fientes
From: Stanislas Klossowski de Rola
Date: 4 Apr 2005

What you read as ff are SS.

Stanislas Klossowski de Rola

Subject: ACADEMY: Study Day on Alchemy in Egypt
From: Daniel Burnham
Date: 6 Apr 2005

The Egyptian Educational & Cultural Bureau
4 Chesterfield Gardens, London W1J 5BG
Tel: 020 7491 7720 Fax: 020 7408 1335


SATURDAY 7 MAY 2005, 10 am-5 pm

Chaired by Professor Charles Burnett & Dr Okasha El Daly

The culture of Ancient Egypt has been a source of inspiration and
wisdom for thousands of years. Yet in the minds of many of us there is a
major break between its distant past and its present. This study day is
part of a series that seeks to redress this imbalance and to restore a
balanced perception of Egypt and its various philosophical, alchemical, and
artistic traditions. Our study day will benefit from a handling session of
relevant ancient Egyptian objects from the collection of the Petrie Museum of
Egyptian Archaeology, University College London.


10: 00~~ Coffee and registration
10: 15~~ First lecture, questions and discussion
11: 15~~ Coffee break
11: 30~~~ Second lecture, questions and discussion
12: 45~~~ Break for lunch
14: 00~~ Third lecture, questions and discussion
15: 00~~~ Coffee break
15: 30~~~ Fourth lecture, questions and discussion
16: 30~~~ General discussion and summing up.
(Lunch and beverages are included)


The first lecture, given by Terence DuQuesne, will be "Ladder
to the sky: alchemy in pharaonic Egypt." Alchemy refers to the
techniques of manipulating and compounding natural substances,
especially minerals, in order to obtain new compounds for various
purposes. Alchemical methods also provide a metaphor for the
transformation of the human personality to higher planes. The
word 'alchemy' itself may be derived from Kmt, the ancient
name for Egypt. It is likely that the philosophy which underlies
the practice of alchemy was developed in pharaonic Egypt.
Evidence for the Egyptians' understanding of the concept of
alchemy is found as early as the Pyramid Texts.

The second lecture, by Kasia Szpakowska, considers "Dreams and the
Fiery Serpent". It will explore transformative elements of dreams, and
their counterparts, nightmares, in ancient Egypt. The discussion will focus on
the presentation of deities in dreams, and the impact which they had on
non-royal individuals of the New Kingdom who were exalted by their
divine visions. At the other end of the spectrum, the Egyptians feared the
assault of the dead and demons who appeared in nightmares. To protect
themselves, Egyptians used apotropaic fiery serpents of clay - a material which
itself is formed of earth and water and then transmuted by fire - as a potent
defence against these disturbing visions. Through both text and artefact
the complex relationships and transformative nature of clay, fire, serpents,
and dreams are examined.

The third lecture will be given by Charles Burnett and discusses "The
Ancient Egyptian Roots of the Hermetic Traditions". Hermes Trismegistos
from Egypt contended with Hermes the Persian as the two greatest
authorities on alchemical and astrological laws in the Arabic world,
and consequently in Medieval Europe. In this lecture the Hermetic
tradition will be traced back to its roots (or its supposed roots) in
ancient Egypt, with analysis of~ texts in Arabic, Greek, and Latin.

The fourth lecture, by Okasha El Daly, addresses Alchemy, Sufism and
hieroglyphs: Dhu Al-Nun the Egyptian. Most Moslem alchemists were
described as Sufis and they almost always had a keen interest in Egyptian
hieroglyphs. They were fascinated by ancient Egyptian imagery, and their
model was the famous 9th century Egyptian alchemist and Sufi, Dhu
Al-Nun Al-Misri of Akhmim (Panopolis) in Upper Egypt. This lecture
explores the ancient Egyptian origins of the philosophy of this Sufi
master, who may be seen as a bridge between ancient Egypt and the Sufi
tradition of Islam.

Subject: ACADEMY: Azogue e-journal's Book of the Year
From: José Rodríguez Guerrero
Date: 8 Apr 2005

Dear Colleagues,
The e-journal "Azogue" offers since 1998 the Book of the Year Award for the
best publication in the history of alchemy. It does not include a monetary
reward. The prize is designed especially to define standards for people
learning in history of alchemy and related fields. The book selected could
be a model for students and new researchers. It will be aiming to a better
and more positive interpretation of alchemy as historical subject.
It is clear that a statement of basic criteria for adequacy will be helpful.
The study of alchemy, hermeticism, rosacrucianism, paracelsism, etc., had
now become part of academic research. But, in mainstream academic
discussions up to the present we can find the validity of various specific
approaches which had been developed in some cases as polar opposites.
Researchers could find methodological references and analytical strategies
in the book selected. It could provide disciplinary orientation in
historical methods and introduce students to the theoretical and practical
problems in our field. It could help students begin to think about the
theme, "history of alchemy", to analyze and think critically about a topic's
significance in history in relation to the theme, and to develop a new
analysis through further research.


People who want to elect the Book of the Year must meet at least one of the
following criteria:
1. Hold an affiliated academic position (national or federal research
institutions, universities and colleges).
2. Hold membership in a recognized association or society of independent
3. Have a demonstrated record of scholarly publications.
You can send your vote to:
The last year (2003) we received 124 votes from 16 countries and we try to
increase this number.

%%%%%%Terms and conditions%%%%%%

The standards used to award the prize should be: originality, well-crafted
arguments and solid scholarship.
The entry must had been published in 2004 (see ISBN).
The deadline for vote submission is April 20.
The Prize is to be awarded at the Azogue web site in May 1.

< >

We thank your collaboration.
Toledo (Spain), April 7-2005.
Azogue. Revista Electrónica Dedicada al Estudio Histórico-Crítico de la
ISSN: 1575-8184

Subject: ACADEMY: The idea that metals grew from a seed
From: Adam McLean
Date: 15 Apr 2005

Can anyone help me identify the main alchemical writers that
articulated the idea that metals grew from a seed in the earth ?

Is there any clear indication when this idea first emerged ?

Thank you,

Adam McLean

Subject: ACADEMY: The idea that metals grew from a seed
From: Carlos Soren
Date: 16 Apr 2005

In chapter four of "The Forge and the Crucible" Mircea Eliade presents a lucid
discussion of the lithic mythology concerning the generation of stones and ores
in earth's bowels. This may be a good departing point. From what I can gather,
the concept of metallic ores being born, growing and decaying, i.e., the biological
explanation of ore genesis, may go back to pre-literate societies.
See also Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China, Volume V:2.
I hope this is of some help.



Subject: ACADEMY: The idea that metals grew from a seed
From: Gleb Butuzov
Date: 16 Apr 2005


I thought about it, and, frankly speaking, I cannot say who among alchemical
authors was the first to mention this explicitly; however, to my mind,
Avicenna's "Book of Remedy" implicitly contains this idea. As you know,
despite Avicenna shared Jabir's conception of sulphur-mercury composition
of metals, he believed that when changing their balance an alchemist can
influence the properties of metal only partly, and there's no way to change
the "species" of metal, which implies the existance of some "kernel" or
"seed" inherent to every particular metal, that cannot be modified.

Best regards,


Subject: ACADEMY: The idea that metals grew from a seed
From: Jean-Yves Artero
Date: 17 Apr 2005

I think that the idea that metals grew from a seed is present in President
D'Espagnet's Enchiridion:

Here is an extract:
"The name Fire is Equivocal amongst Philosophers; for sometimes it is used
by Metonymy for heat; and so there be as many fires as heats. In the Generation
of Metals and Vegetables Nature acknowledgeth a Three-fold Fire; to wit,
Celestial, Terrestrial and Innate. The First flows from Sol as its Fountain into
the Bosom of the Earth; it stirreth up Fumes, or Mercurial and Sulphurous
vapours, of which the Metals are created, and mixeth itself amongst them; it
stirreth up that torpid fire which is placed in the seeds of Vegetables, and
addeth fresh sparks unto it, as a spur to vegetation. The Second lurketh in
the bowels of the Earth, by the Impulse and action whereof the Subterraneous
vapours are driven upwards as through pores and pipes, and thrusts outwards
from the Centre towards the surface of the Earth, both for the composition
of Metals, where the Earth swelleth up, as also for the production of
Vegetables, by putrefying their seeds, by softening and preparing them for
generation. The third Fire, viz., Innate is also indeed Solar; it is generated
of a vapid smoke of Metals, and also being infused with the monthly
provision grows together with the humid matter, and is retained as in a
Prison; or more truly, as form is conjoined with the mixed body; it firmly
inhereth in the seeds of Vegetables, until being solicited by the point of
its Father's rays it be called out, then Motion intrinsically moveth and
informeth the matter, and becomes the Moulder and Dispenser of the
whole Mixture. In the generation of Animals, Celestial Fire doth insensibly
co-operate with the Animal, for it is the first Agent in Nature; for the heat
of the female answereth to Terrestrial Fire; when the Seed putrefies, this
warmth prepareth it. For truly the Fire is implanted in the Seed; then the
Son of Sol disposeth of the matter, and being disposed, he informeth it. "

Otherwise there is at least another reference available, in Paracelsus'
Alchemical catechism:

"Q. Where does the metallic nature store her seeds?
A. In the four elements.
Q. With what materials can the philosopher alone accomplish anything?
A. With the germ of the given matter; this is its elixir or quintessence, more
precious by far, and more useful, to the artist, than is Nature herself. Before
the philosopher has extracted the seed, or germ, Nature, in his behalf, will
be ready to perform her duty.
Q. What is the germ, or seed, of any substance?
A. It is the most subtle and perfect decoction and digestion of the substance
itself; or, rather, it is the Balm of Sulphur, which is identical with the
Radical Moisture of Metals.
Q. By what is this seed, or germ, engendered?
A. By the four elements, subject to the will of the Supreme Being, and through
the direct intervention of the imagination of Nature. "

Best regards,


Subject: ACADEMY: The idea that metals grew from a seed
From: Clarence Wallace
Date: 17 Apr 2005

Michael Scot assisted in translating Aristotle into Latin. Aristotle believed
that metals grew in the ground like plants only much slower. Some first century
chinese alchemists referred to gold as growing from the ground and it was
referred to in Arabic writings that may have been translated during this same
time period.

Thomas Aquinas in the Summa Theologica (referred to plants fixed to the
earth as are stones and metals) and depending on the translation and
interpretation the inference to metals growing from the earth may be found.

Newton and Paracelcus made reference to metals as growing from the earth.

I'll try and find specific cites for you in the near future.

Clarence Wallace

Subject: ACADEMY: The idea that metals grew from a seed
From: Ahmad Y. al-Hassan
Date: 17 Apr 2005

There is an Arabic book on alchemy on growing gold. It was published and
translated into English by E.J. Holmyard in 1923.

The title is: Kitâb al-'ilm al-muktasab fî zirâ'at adh-dhahab (Book of Knowledge
acquired concerning the cultivation of gold) by Abu 'l-Qâsim Muh. b. Ahmad
al-'Irâqî who lived in the 13th century.

I do not think that al-'Iraqi originated the idea, and most probably it goes back to
earlier alchemists.

Ahmad Y. al-Hassan

Subject: ACADEMY: The idea that metals grew from a seed
From: Shannon Grimes
Date: 17 Apr 2005

Lawrence Principe and William Newman have identified this interpretation
of metallic growth from seeds (and/or that all metals eventually "grow"
into gold) as a problem in the historiography of alchemy, claiming that this
theory was influenced by Levy-Bruhl's influential writings on so-called
primitive mentalities. They actually attribute this "panpsychic" interpretation
of alchemy to Helene Metzger, an early 20th century historian of chemistry
who also happened to be Levy-Bruhl's niece.

See L. Principe and W. Newman, "Some Problems with the Historiography
of Alchemy," in Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Early
Modern Europe, ed. W. Newman and A. Grafton. Cambridge, MA:
The MIT Press, 2001.

I'd just like to add that in my studies of Greco-Egyptian alchemical
literature, I have found no evidence for the belief that metals grow from
seeds in the earth. There are instances of seed and embryo imagery in these
texts, but these are clearly intended in a metaphorical sense (often to
designate the raw materials being worked on, or "grown" in the vessel), and
as not literal interpretations of how metals form in the earth. I think
many a scholar has taken this imagery too literally.

Shannon Grimes

Subject: ACADEMY: The idea that metals grew from a seed
From: Shannon Grimes
Date: 17 Apr 2005


You mentioned Michael Scot's translation of Aristotle: I am not familar
with this translation, but Aristotle clearly distinguished between the
generation of metals and the generation of plants. He claims that metals
are formed due to vaporous exhalations being compressed within the earth
(see Meteorology 3, 378a 14-378b 4), whereas he specifically notes that
plants grow from seeds, which are generated from male and female plants
(see Plants 1, 817a-817b). Both "grow" in the earth, but in quite different
ways. Aristotle makes no mention of metallic "seeds."

Shannon Grimes

Subject: ACADEMY: The idea that metals grew from a seed
From: Rafal Prinke
Date: 18 Apr 2005

Dear Adam,

>Can anyone help me identify the main alchemical writers that articulated
the idea that metals grew from a seed in the earth ?

A book by Hiro Hirai on this topic has just been published:

with a table of contents on his website:

He also wrote a number of articles on the same - and even
more exactly "seeds" as (sometimes) opposed or complementary
to "semen".

Concerning the article by Lawrence Principe and William Newman
which Shannon Grimes mentioned, I understand they are not
so much opposed to the "growth" concept as to the modern
interpretations of alchemy as a whole, without taking its
diachronic nature into account. If I remember correctly,
they say that some alchemists adopted a hylozoic view
of nature, while others where of more mechanical persuation.
Besides, it is also a problem (which I think they touched upon,
too) of our unescapable presentist attitude - as the notion
of "growth" and "life" is not necessarily the same. So when
modern chemists talk about "growing crystals from a seed",
are they using the same metaphoric language as the alchemists
did or are both "discourses" quite different in semantic
content? I think that is what Principle and Newman criticized
- the traditional interpretation that alchemists "really meant
it" while modern chemists "just use a metaphor". And they
show that at least in a number of cases it wasn't so - and
alchemists where quite conscious that their language was
one of similes and other figures.

Best regards,

Subject: ACADEMY: Hermann Stockinger's book
From: Rafal Prinke
Date: 18 Apr 2005

Dear Academy,

Some time ago I asked about opinions on a new book:

STOCKINGER, HERMANN E., Die hermetisch-esoterische Tradition
unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Einflüsse auf das Denken Johann
Christian Edelmanns (1698-1767)
Hildesheim 2004.

I now see that the new issue of _Aries_ has a review of it.
Can anyone who has seen it tell me what it (the review) says?
How well alchemy is treated there?

Best regards,

Subject: ACADEMY: The idea that metals grew from a seed
From: Adam McLean
Date: 18 Apr 2005

Thank you all for the various views regarding the alchemical theory
of the growth of metals from a seed.

My question arose from my working on editing an English translation
of Michael Maier's 'Viatorium'. This book is a survey of the seven planetary
metals, their properties, their ores and their medicinal uses. It is
obvious that Maier accepts a view he holds as commonplace, that
metals grow in the Earth over a long period, and he sees one of the
ways of approaching alchemical transmutation to somehow find a
means of speeding up this process. The idea that metals grew in
the Earth from metallic seeds was a common idea in the 17th century,
and what I was wondering was when this idea first emerged especially
in European alchemy. Roger Bacon and most of the early alchemists
seem to incline more to the Sulphur-Mercury theory. Norton at one point
in his 'Ordinall' written in 1477, explicitly states that metals, unlike plants,
do not have seeds. He puts up the theory of the growth of metals
in the earth only to shoot it down. He is obviously attacking a view he had
read that ran counter to his own theories. So there may have been
some writer who articulated the 'seeds of metals' idea, probably in the
15th century. This idea was printed in Nazari's 'Three Dreams' in the mid
16th century, so it will predate Nazari.

Regarding the Principe/Newman article on the errors in the historiography
of alchemy, they are referring to the modern theories about alchemy, not
to the apparance of this idea or alchemical theory in the 15th/16th/17th

I am not so sure that alchemists were just using this idea as an allegory.
Anyone who has any knowledge of mining knows that metals ores
are rarely found in large masses or in strata or seams as is coal. Instead
metals ores appear in mines as sinuous veins, running through surrounding
rock. This is explained nowadays by geologists who say that most metal
deposits arose from the upward eruption from deep in the earth of metal
salts carried in superheated water. This is why these veins can appear
almost like organic structures. Also different metals were in the same mix
and these often separated for physical chemical reasons. So a vein of
ore might have good rich copper at one end and poorer quality copper
further down the vein.

The miners of the 15th and 16th centuries were well aware of this, and
they saw that the metal sometimes changed along the length of a vein. These
observations were taken up by some alchemists and they theorised about
metal growing in the earth. The pure copper growing from a less pure ore
further down the vein.

I myself experienced this just a few weeks ago when I visited a (now closed)
lead mine near to where I live in Scotland. The guide showed us the way the miners
had followed a vein of galena (lead sulphide ore) into the hillside. At one point
the vein had branched but the miners had quickly abandoned one of the
branches. As the guide explained this part of the ore vein was rich in
manganese from which it was difficult to smelt out the lead.

Maier and the other alchemists of that time were basing their theory
on actual observations by miners. For its time, the theory that metals
grew in the mines in the earth, was an entirely sensible one.

Adam McLean

Subject: ACADEMY: The idea that metals grew from a seed
From: Gleb Butuzov
Date: 19 Apr 2005

Shannon Grimes wrote:
> You mentioned Michael Scot's translation of Aristotle: I am not
>familar with this translation, but Aristotle clearly distinguished
>between the generation of metals and the generation of plants.

This is absolutely correct. I thought we were speaking about the SEED
of metal, not just a mixture of vapours, weren't we?

Concerning chinese alchemy: a similar idea, of course, is present there,
and dates back to II c. B.C. as far as I remember. I can give an exact
reference, if necessary, but, again, I thought we were talking about

Best regards,

Gleb Butuzov

Subject: ACADEMY: The idea that metals grew from a seed
From: José Rodríguez Guerrero
Date: 20 Apr 2005

Dear Adam,
I think Sendivogius' Novum lumen chymicum (see: De Lapide
Philosophorum Tractatus duodecim, chapters 4 to 9) was the main
17th century text that articulated the idea that metals grew from
a sole seed (or semen) in the earth. I think it should be Maier's source.
Moreover, Novum Lumen was based upon the metaphysical system
that Petrus Severinus constructed around 'semina' as the natural
element that provides a most satisfactory account of change and

See: - JOLE SHACKELFORD, (2004), "A Philosophical Path for Paracelsian
Medicine. The ideas, intellectual context and influence of Petrus
Severinus 1540-1602", Museum Tusculanum Press, Copenhagen,
pp. 17-19, 44-45, 160-194, 232-247, 268-278, 304-316.

I have read the past messages regarding this question and I would
like to send two complementary notes:

1. - The sulphur-mercury doctrine is not jabirian but pre-jabirian.
I think the first reference appears in an infuential work entitled
'Kitâb sirr al-halîqa' (9th century). Both are defined as 'viscous
waters' or oils with a common 'radix' called 'elemental water'.
Sulphur is described as an '...oil from the water surface...' and
mercury as an '...oil fitted into the water'. 'Sirr' never uses the
word 'seeds'. It explains the first body or substance of metals is
gold (an equilibrated sulphur-mercury composition). So the perfect
metallic form (gold) appears at the first moment as Pinella Travaglia
explains: " tesi sostenuta, sia nel testo arabo sia nel latino e che
tutti i minerali alla origine della loro formatione sono oro (il corpu di
tutti i metali e oro, dice il testo arabo). Dopo che si e formato il loro
corpo aureo, sopraggiungono nei minerali gli accidenti che, mutando
l'equilibrio originario, li rendono diversi [...] L'oro e, dunque, l'origine,
la materia dei minerali, ma questi successivamente se ne allontanano...".
You can see that gold is the substratum or basis to which all the metals
belong and not the end of a growing process. This idea had spread in
many philosophical and alchemical work during the Arabic and Latin
Middle Ages. It was discussed in Abertus Magnus's 'Book of Minerals'
(trad. D. Wickoff, Oxford, pp. 171-174).
See: - PINELLA TRAVAGLIA, (2001), "Una Cosmologia ermetica.
Il Kitâb sirr al-halîqa / De secretis naturae", Liguori Editori, Napoli,
pp. 100-105.

2 - I think the formation of metals was described as a 'congelatio' or
'solidificatio' from two exhalations (or earth-water elements; "hybrid
elements" (hêmigenê stoicheia) as Olympiodorus said) in the main
alchemical literature produced during the Late Antiquity and Early
Middle Ages. Cold seems to be the active agent in the generation of
metals in the earth (we can find this idea in the platonic Timeo 59b)
while heat was the agent in the generation of plants (seeds) or
animals (embryo). I think we can find terms of growing but are rare
There is a hightly recommended book on this question: -
C. VIANO (ed.), "Aristoteles chemicus", Academia Verlag, Sankt
Augustin. There are contributions concerning Aristotle, Plato,
Alexander of Aphrodisias, Olympiodorus, Ibn al Bitrîq, Ibn Ishâq,
Jâbir, Ibn Umail, the Encyclopedia of the Ihwân al-Safâ,
[ps-]Ramon Lull, Pietro Bono.


José Rodríguez Guerrero

Subject: ACADEMY: Origins of spagyric alchemy
From: Adam McLean
Date: 25 Apr 2005

I was recently wondering about the evolution of spagyric alchemy.

Now it is commonplace to say that this originated with Paracelsus,
but are there any sources before him in which the idea of the
spagyric process was clearly expressed ?

I am only looking for sources before Paracelsus.

Are there any articles or chapters of books I should consult to
find out more about this ?

Adam McLean

Subject: ACADEMY: John Dee and Alchemy colloquium
From: Adam McLean
Date: 28 Apr 2005

JOHN DEE AND ALCHEMY: a one-day colloquium organised by Dr Stephen
Clucas for the Society of the History of Alchemy and Chemistry.
Birkbeck, University of London, 30 Russell Square, London, WC1E 7HX.

10.45am start.

Nicholas H. Clulee, 'The Alchemical significance of John Dee's Monas Hieroglyphica'
Hilde Norrgren, 'John Dee and Johannes Panetheus's Voarchadumia'
Peter J. Forshaw, 'The alchemical reception of John Dee in the seventeenth century'
Penny Bayer, 'Lady Margaret Clifford's alchemical receipt book and the John Dee Circle'.

If you would like to register please contact Dr Anna Simmons


Subject: ACADEMY: John Dee and Alchemy colloquium
From: Adam McLean
Date: 28 Apr 2005

My apologies, I missed out the date of the Colloquium

It is Saturday May 28th.

Birkbeck, University of London,
30 Russell Square, London, WC1E 7HX.

10.45am start.