The Alchemy web site on

Islamic Alchemy in the context of Islamic Science

These pages are edited by Prof. Hamed Abdel-reheem Ead
Professor of Chemistry at Faculty of Science-University of Cairo Giza-Egypt and director of Science Heritage Center
Web site:

Old Egyptian Alchemy in the context of Egyptian Science

Technical Arts Related To Alchemy in Old Egypt
Part 1 Metallurgy - Copper and Iron Extraction. - Mercury - Metal and Mysticism - Art of Glass Making - Textile and Dyeing Materials.
Part 2 Earliest Chemical Manuscripts of the Chemical Arts In Egypt - Discovery of earliest chemical manuscripts - Leyden Papyrus - Stockholm Papyrus - Some selections from the Leyden Papyrus.
Part 3 Dyeing Processes in Leyden and Stockholm Papyri - Phrygian Stone - Hints for testing the quality of dyestuffs - Methods For Whitening Pearls - Method of making Artificial Pearls - Trade Names of Materials used in the Recipes
Part 4 Alexandria-Egypt and Early Alchemists - Alexandrian Alchemical Mystics - Fate of Alexandria University - Alexandria In Times Of Muslims - The Earliest Alchemical Writers In Alexandria

A study of the treatment and Conservation of Coptic Icons

History of Botany
[This study is made by Dr. Wafaa M. Amer, Botany Deptartment, Faculty of Science, Cairo University,Giza 12613, Egypt.]

Part 1: The Date Palm in Ancient History
Introduction. Date in Ancient Egypt. Ancient religious traditions. Medicinal uses of date palm in Ancient Egypt. Date palm in Jewish religion : religion, traditions and legends. Date palm in Christianity: religion, traditions and legends. Date palm in Islamic: religion, traditions and legends. Date palm in folk medicine. References.
Part 2: Ancient Egyptian Agriculture and Crop Processing

Medicine In Old Egypt
Cosmetics In Ancient Egypt
Perfumes in Ancient Egypt
Mummification in Ancient Egypt

Alchemy in Islamic Times

Alchemy in Islamic Times
Introduction: Cultural Background - Islamic Alchemy In Western Writings
The sources of alchemy among Muslims: Archelaos - Socrates - Plato (Aflatun) - Aristotle (Aristu)o - Porphyry (d. c. 303) - Galen (Jahnus) (d. c. 199 AD) - Bolos the Democritean of Mendes - Zosimus - Hermes and Hermetic literature - Sirr al-Khaliqa of Ballnas
Muslim alchemists: Jabir ibn Haiyan (721-815) - Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (866-925)
Later Arab alchemists: Aidamir al-Jildaki (?-1342) - Al-Tughra'i (1063-1120) - Al-Majriti ( -1007)
General review of Muslim chemistry
Alchemy in Ibn Khaldun's Muqaddimah
Medicine in Islamic Times

Arab Medical Schools during the 12th and 13th centuries
Edited by Prof. Maher Abd Al Kader M. Ali.
Arabic (or Islamic) Influence On the Historical Development of Medicine
Edited and Prepared By Prof. Hamed A. Ead, Professor of Chemistry, Cairo University [8th August 1998, Heidelberg, Germany]
Averroes As A Physician
On the occasion of the 800th Anniversary of the Muslim Scientist "Averroes". Edited and prepared by Prof. Hamed A. Ead during the DAAD fellowship hosted by Heidelberg University, July-October, 1998

History of Islamic Science

Based on the book George Sarton, Introduction To the History of Science. Edited and prepared by Prof. Hamed A. Ead
The Time of Jabir Ibn Haiyan - Second half of Eighth Century
The Time of Al-Khwarizmi - First Half of Ninth Century
The Time of Al-Razi - Second Half of Ninth Century
The Time of Al-Mas'udi - First Half of Tenth Century
The Time of Abu-l-Wafa - Second Half of Tenth Century
The Time of Al-Biruni - First Half of Eleventh Century
The Time of Omar Khayyam - Second Half of Eleventh Century

Portraits of Twelve Muslim Scientists in Various Fields

Timeline of Islamic Scientists (700-1400)